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Download NOUN LIBRARY ORIENTATION MANUAL
Download NOUN LIBRARY ORIENTATION MANUAL
NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA
LIBRARY ORIENTATION MANUAL
DR. ADAM GAMBO SALEH
NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA HEADQUARTERS
JABI, ABUJA ii National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
© 2017 by NOUN Press
National Open University of Nigeria
Plot 91, Cadastral Zone
Nnamdi Azikiwe Expressway
14/16 Ahmadu Bello Way
Victoria Island, Lagos
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, in any
form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
ISBN: 978-978-8521-01-3 iii National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
VISION/MISSION STATEMENT OF NOUN LIBRARY
To provide first class information services that will enable and enhance all forms of research, the pursuit of knowledge and contribute to the development of the university and the society.
To deliver world class library and information services to meet the needs of local, national and international scholarly community, support the university‟s mission and contribute to the development of society through the pursuit of teaching, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence.
Quality service, getting the basic right, continuous improvement, investing for the future, building and enhancing reputation, supporting diversity. iv National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Dr. Angela Ebele Okpala
Wuse 2 Planning Office
Dr. Comfort Uzoigwe
Enugu Study Centre
Dr. Olaronke Fagbola
Ibadan Study Centre
Mr. Oluwaseun Babaronti
Victoria Island, Lagos
Mr. Ambrose E. Smart
Benin Study Centre
Mr. Shamwil Salisu Bala
Katsina Study Centre v National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
Vision/Mission Statement of the Library……………………….. iii
Core Values……………………………………………………… iii
List of Contributors……………………………………………... iv
Chapter 1 Meaning of Library, Origin, Types and
their Functions - Comfort Uzoigwe 1
1.0 Introduction……………………………………………… 1
1.1 Concept of Library………………………………. 2
1.2 Attempted Definition of Library………………… 2
1.3 Many Definitions of Library in Literature……… 2
1.4 The Origin of Library……………………………. 3
1.5 Types of Libraries……………………………….. 5
1.5.1 National Library…………………………. 5
1.5.2 Public Libraries………………………….. 6
1.5.3 Academic Libraries……………………… 7
1.5.4 School Libraries…………………………. 8
1.5.5 Special Libraries………………………… 9
1.5.6 Private Libraries…………………………. 10
1.5.7 The Electronic Library………………….. 10
1.5.8 Hybrid Library…………………………… 11
Chapter 2 Library Organisation - Ambrose E. Smart 14
2.0 Introduction………………………………………............ 14
2.1 Classification of Materials…………………......... 14
2.2 Library of Congress Classification (LCC)…........ 15
2.3 Purpose of Classification Scheme in the
2.4 Call Number………………….............................. 16
2.5 Accessibility of Materials……………………….. 17
2.6 Personnel Structure in the Library……………… 17 vi National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
2.7 Sections in the Library…………………….......... 17
2.7.1 The University Librarian‟s Office…........ 18
2.7.2 Acquisition Section……........................... 18
2.7.3 Cataloguing Section…………………….. 18
2.7.4 Readers‟ Services Section………………. 19
2.7.5 Reference Section……………………….. 19
2.7.6 Serials Section…………………………... 20
2.7.7 E-Library Section……………………….. 20
Chapter 3 Library Services, Rules and Regulations - Shamwil Salisu Bala 22
3.0 Introduction………………………………………………. 22
3.1 Print Resources Available in NOUN Library…… 22
3.2 Borrowing and Returning……………………….. 23
3.3 Number of Items Permitted for Loan…………… 23
3.4 Duration of Loan………………………………… 23
3.5 Regulations for Borrowing of Library
3.5.1 Undergraduate Students…………………. 24
3.5.2 Postgraduate Students…………………... 24
3.5.3 Academic and Senior Staff……………… 24
3.6 Condition of Loan……………………………….. 25
3.7 Return of Borrowed Books……………………… 26
3.8 Overdue Notices…………………………………. 26
3.9 Care for Library Materials………………………. 26
3.10 Library Regulations……………………………… 27
Chapter 4 E-Resources and Services in Distance Learning Environment - Olaronke Fagbola and
Oluwaseun Babarotimi 30
4.0 Introduction……………………………………………… 30
4.1 Available Electronic Resources in NOUN
4.2 Accessibility of Available Electronic
4.2.1 OPAC (Online Public Access
Catalogue)……………………………….. 39 vii National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
4.2.2 Open Access Sites……………………… 39
4.2.3 Scholarly Research Search Engines…… 40
4.2.4 Meta Search Engines…………………… 40
4.3 Library Services………………………………… 40
Chapter 5 Information Literacy - Angela Ebele Okpala 49
5.0 Introduction……………………………………………… 49
5.1 Information……………………………………… 49
5.2 The Need for Effective Use of Information…….. 49
5.3 Literacy………………………………………….. 50
5.4 Information Literacy……………………………. 51
5.5 The Need for Information Literacy…………….. 52
5.6 Technology……………………………………… 52
5.7 Technological Literacy………………………….. 53
5.8 Sources of Information………………………… 55
5.8.1 Primary Sources………………………… 55
5.8.2 Secondary Sources……………………… 55
5.9 General Principles of Searching Print and
Electronic Resources……………………………. 56
5.10 Constructing a Search Strategy………………… 57
5.11 Information Literacy Skills for National
Open University………………………………… 58
5.11.1 Good Reading Habit……………………. 58
5.11.2 Good Study Methods…………………... 59
5.11.3 SQ3R Reading Method………………… 61
5.11.4 Copyright Infringement and
5.11.5 Plagiarism………………………………. 64
5.11.6 The Similarities between Copyright
and Plagiarism………………………….. 64
5.11.7 Differences between Copyright and Plagiarism………………………………. 65 viii National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
This manual is developed to guide users of NOUN libraries in the headquarters and all study centre libraries across the country. It was deliberately written to address the needs of mature students typical of NOUN, in their quest for information search. It is equally useful to all staff for maximum utilisation of library resources/facilities efficiently and effectively. It serves as part of library education and information literacy to all NOUN community especially in this age of information communication technology and its attendant impact resulting in information explosion.
The manual is made up of five chapters covering a wide scope of librarianship and library activities. Chapter one introduces the concept of a library as variously defined as well as their types. This is to enable users appreciate NOUN library as an academic library, and the role it can play in the academic community.
Chapter two provides an insight into the organisational set-up of the library‟s resources. As an academic library, it employs the Library of Congress (LC) Classification Scheme which is in line with the global practice in librarianship. This will help users understand how resources are organised in the library, hence, facilitates information seeking.
Services offered by the library and the rules and regulations governing its utilisation are highlighted in chapter three.
Chapter four is on the e-resources and services of the library. The library houses both the conventional library and an electronic library. It shows how learning in the 21st century is significantly different from learning in the preceding centuries. However, as an ODL institution, NOUN library places more emphasis on e-Library resources because of the diverse nature of its clientele. The chapter is devoted to the listing of all available database(s), Digital Resources, Open Educational Resources (OER), The Open Access Catalogue (OPAC) is extensively explained in this chapter. ix National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
Finally, chapter five is dedicated to issues on information literacy. It identifies various searching techniques and good reading skills and habits necessary for a successful research activity. It also enlightens on plagiarism and copyright infringement with a view to avoiding them.
DR. ADAM GAMBO SALEH
University Librarian 1 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
Meaning of Library, Origin, Types and their Functions
The library is the collective memory of society. It contains all the thoughts and wisdom of man, and has the ability to communicate in time and space. It communicates in time by having the codified knowledge of man across all centuries, and it communicates in space by having the codified knowledge of man from every land and clime.
The great thinkers and men of learning have relied on the library and its books to make them what they are or were. For example, the great scientist, Isaac Newton said “If I have seen further than others, it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants.” Karl Marx, the father of Marxism died while reading in the British Museum.
To become a more knowledgeable person, and to be better informed than others, one needs to resort to books. It is no surprise, therefore, that the British see the library as the “heart” of the university. Every citadel of learning establishes a library to support its academic and other related programmes. A popular saying goes thus: “The quality of a university can be gauged from the content of its library.” It is for the reason of supporting teaching, learning, research, and leisure needs of members of every university that each university has a library and pays serious attention to it.
Libraries, be it academic, public, school, or special are central in any educational enterprise. No meaningful or solid education can take place without the library - because libraries form the foundation on which the groundwork of lasting, fruitful and qualitative scholarship resolves.
It is in view of these all important roles of the library that it became necessary that students in institutions of higher learning should be taught the best way to use the library in order to maximise its resources for their effective learning. 2 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
1.1 Concept of Library
The New Encyclopedia Britannica explains that the library has its origin from the Latin word “liber” which means “book”. From this standpoint, it infers that book is inseparable from the concept of library. The conservative definition of library as a storehouse of knowledge where resources are shackled to preserve and prevent them from any form of theft making access to them very narrow is no longer adequate.
However, by the middle of the 15th century, with the invention of the printing press, several copies of a book could be printed within a short time. With the availability of the printing press, it became easier, to replace lost copies, print more copies and reprint damaged books. From this period on, the orientation of the library changed from preservation centre to a free access centre.
1.2 Attempted Definition of Library
The invention of the printing press invariably revolutionised the concept of library. Hence, the library can be described as an organised collection of books and other information materials kept for reading, study and reference. The term “organisation” makes the difference between the library and any other type of information materials collection. The library glossary was more explicit in its definition of library as a place where information materials are acquired processed, organised, stored, retrieved and disseminated to potential users when the need arises.
1.3 Many Definitions of Library in Literature
Ezennia (1993), Gojeh (1995), Achebe (2008) and others define library as “a collection of books and other non-book materials, housed, organised and interpreted to meet the yearning needs of people for information, knowledge, recreation, aesthetics, research and enjoyment.” 3 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
All these definition have one thing in common; that the library is an organised collection of books and other non-book materials stored for use by library patrons.
1.4 The Origin of Library
A trace of events from creation depicts that the library is as old as the world. The story of the creation is being told today because of the availability of records preserved and disseminated by men who were inspired by God. Archeologists have been able to tell stories of thousands of years ago because in the course of their excavations, they were able to come in contact with artifacts through which they make their estimations.
We have heard stories of how a particular art was transferred from generation to generation. All these show that, in the past, there were ways of preserving our information for posterity. In the past it was called “human encyclopedia” or oral tradition and later to books. As civilisation advanced, human thoughts were concretised in pictorial or visual communication, carving, drawing or painting. This was traced to the ancient civilisation of the Egyptians and Babylonians that invented their type of writing cuneiform and hieroglyphics in preserving information for posterities. Scholars also revealed that monks in the monastery in Rome were also among the first to have information kept in a written form. They were called „scriptoriums‟ or the script writers.
The introduction of writing was a landmark development in the history of man because it offered mankind the opportunities for the preservation of human activities permanently for future use. The invention of the printing press in China aggravated the spread of modern libraries. It was said to have been invented there even before it was made in ancient Egypt. History had it that, the art of printing from moveable types was also known to be in practice in China several centuries before it was reinvented as it were in the west. The Chinese have had libraries for not less than 3,250 years, their books consisting of tortoise shells and the first known library consisting of about 17,000 specimens of tortoise shells. 4 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
The shells bore storage inscriptions and dates to about 1,300 B.C. All these were found in a pit in 1936 along with a single human skeleton which was believed to be the librarian in charge of the tortoise shell library.
Also the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in Germany in 1440 led to the explosion in book production and documentation of various types including newspapers, magazines, maps, posters in the Western World.
This great invention of the 15th century led to the increased production of bibliographies as well as heightened public propensities for private book collection. As a result, private collections (libraries) flourished in Europe and other parts of the world.
The parliamentary investigations which led to the first English Library Act of 1850 in Britain and the organisation of the Boston public libraries of 1852 in the United States of America, marked the beginning of the modern library movement. With the explosion of library everywhere, there came the need for division and specialisations in libraries based on its audience and parent institutions.
Public opinion started to believe in libraries as it believed in schools. Universities also appreciated the libraries and its relationship in quality teaching and learning. Also in developing countries, like Nigeria the scene is changing for better as large library buildings were planned and constructed in institutions of higher learning, secondary and primary schools were gradually not left out. The Nigerian Universities Commission of Nigeria (NUC) has also recognised and given the libraries the pride of place in the scheme of events.
The broad objectives of these libraries no matter the character of the parent organisations are to acquire information materials, process, organise and make them available to their users. 5 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
1.5 Types of Libraries
The objective of any library is to provide the information needs of the readers through the acquisition, processing, organisation preservation and creation of access to those information resources to the potential users. However, the organisational structure, nature of users, purpose of establishment and variations in the type of services rendered led to the classification of the library into many types. These include the national, public, academic, school, special, private and electronic library. The functions and services of these libraries differ as they have different clientele to serve.
1.5.1 National Library
The national library is a library that serves the needs of the entire nation and that is why it is always located at the headquarters or the capital city of a country. National library is established by the federal government by a law or act that assigns functions it.
The following are the functions of the national library:
1. To establish and maintain a branch of the national library in each state of the federation.
2. To give advice to agencies, states or organisations that need to establish a library.
3. Collecting and preserving all publications-newspapers, books, periodicals, emanating from the country. Such collections when compiled are called the National Bibliography of Nigeria (NBN). An author submits three copies of his published work. State governments submit 10 copies and federal government submits 25 copies to the national library within one month of their publication.
4. Stocking representative collections of foreign publication relevant to our country‟s socio-cultural values.
5. Publishing the National Bibliography and compiling a union catalogue. 6 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
6. Rendering bibliographic services, such as issuing International Standard Book Number (ISBN) and International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) to publishers and authors.
7. Coordinating the activities of other types of libraries within the country.
1.5.2 Public Libraries
These are libraries established in every state capital by the state government to serve the reading public without bias to sex, age, race, status, educational background or religion. According to Aina (2004) public library is more or less a universal library, not restricted to any group of users and providing services without any form of discrimination, bias on gender or race.
Some authors refer to public libraries as the people‟s “University”. Their services are free of charge. Example of a public library is the State Central Library Enugu, at Market Road Enugu. The aim of the public library is to improve the quality of life, promote the concept of democratic society and to add to the general happiness of man in the place he finds himself. The following are the functions of the public library:
1. Creating and strengthening reading habits in children from an early age.
2. Supporting both individual and self-conducted education at all levels.
3. Providing opportunities for personal and creative development.
4. Stimulating the imagination and creativity of children and the young people.
5. Encouraging mass literacy campaign through the provision of information resources.
6. Promoting awareness of cultural heritage, appreciation of the arts, scientific achievements and innovations.
7. Fostering intercultural dialogue and favouring cultural diversity. 7 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
8. Providing adequate information services to local entrepreneurs.
9. Facilitating the development of information and computer literacy skills.
10 Supporting and participating in information literacy programme for all age groups and initiating such activities if need be.
1.5.3 Academic Libraries
Academic libraries are libraries attached to tertiary institutions such as universities, polytechnics, colleges of education, colleges of agriculture, colleges of technology and also research institutes.
The academic library is the nerve centre or the hub around which scholarship revolves. It is an indispensible instrument for intellectual development, being a store house of information to which users (students as well as lecturers) may turn to for accessing their information needs. They provide information resources for supporting teaching, learning and research activities, in the overall realisation of the objectives of their institutions.
Functions of the Academic Libraries
1. To provide the information needs of the academic community they serve.
2. They select materials to be acquired and their procurement by various methods.
3. They organise the resources procured through the processes of cataloguing, classification and shelving. All these will facilitate easy retrieval of those resources by the users.
4. Provision of intellectual leadership through research, publication and dissemination of information.
5. Promotion of extensive services of the university through their support for adult education, distance education programmes, extra-moral studies programme, seminars, conferences and workshops. 8 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
6. To provide lending services appropriate to different types of users.
7. To provide enabling reading environment in useful variety of locations.
8. To provide specialised information services such as Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) to the academic community.
9. To make accessible online information resources to the academic community.
10. To organise information literacy skill programme for the students and staff of the institution with the aim of enabling them to use the library effectively.
11. Acting as a link with the world of books and libraries and drawing upon the special resources of other libraries and institutions. This cooperation with other libraries is called inter library loan and inter library reference for the interest of their users.
1.5.4 School Libraries
These are libraries found in pre-primary, primary and secondary schools to provide the information needs of the pupils/students and their teachers. A school library is a collection of a wide variety of library materials (books, newspapers, non-print) and other resources housed in each school, centrally organised by the staff and professionally prepared to offer services to students and teachers that will enrich and support the educational enterprise.
They are also called Learning Resources Centres or Instructional Materials Centres (IMC) for the schools, providing variety of teaching and learning aids.
Functions of School Libraries
1. To enhance the provision of information resources needed in the educational programmes of the school.
2. To assist in the development of good reading habits in children through independent reading opportunities. 9 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
3. To help school children widen their knowledge and develop love for reading.
4. It serves as an instrument for enrichment, students‟ guidance and away from formal atmosphere of the classroom.
5. To inculcate in the children the habit of using the library as a repository of knowledge in later life.
6. To lay the foundation of leisure reading among school children.
1.5.5 Special Libraries
These are libraries established and maintained by corporate organisations such as business firms, research institutes, government agencies and professional association to serve their members or staff.
Special libraries are sponsored by their parent organisations. Their main function is to help their parent organisations achieve their set goals and objectives by providing them with their information needs. The information resources, they provide are usually confined to the narrow subject interest of their host organisations and its use is limited to staff or members of the organisation only.
The following are forms of special libraries.
(a) Research libraries - are those found in research institutes. Their main concern is to procure resources for the information needs of their staff. Examples are the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Ibadan. Federal Institute of Industrial Research (FIRO), Oshodi, Lagos; National Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER), Ibadan; Project Development Institute (PRODA), Enugu.
(b) Media libraries - are those libraries attached to the media houses such as television and radio houses to cater for their staff‟s information needs.
(c) Newspaper libraries are those libraries attached to newspapers firms such as Guardian, Daily Trust, Sun, etc. to provide for the information needs of their staff.
(d) Law libraries - these are libraries attached to the judiciary, or law firms owned by legal practitioners. 10 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
(e) Ministry libraries - are found in the various government ministries providing information needs to policymakers and other civil servants.
1.5.6 Private Libraries
As the name implies - private libraries are those libraries owned and used by individuals‟ family members, relations, friends and well-wishers. Private libraries are usually located in the people‟s homes or compounds. In other words, the library collections acquired are stored for the individuals‟ advancement in knowledge. Examples of some private libraries include Gani Fawehimi‟s Law Library, Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe Library at Onuiyi Nsukka, Henry Carr‟s Library at Ibadan, etc.
However, most private libraries have greatly supported academic and other libraries. For example, most private libraries have formed the bulk of academic libraries‟ collections. Henry Carr‟s collections formed the bulk of the University of Ibadan, Library collection. Also the library collections of Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe formed the bulk of Nnamdi Azikiwe‟s Library collection at University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
Functions of Private Libraries
1. Private collections provide resources for the home which will lay the foundation of learning to the children at home leading to love for books and reading.
2. Private libraries assist the children in the home to inculcate the habit of reading.
3. It provides some rare and archival materials for reading, study and research,. Such materials may not be available in other libraries.
1.5.7 The Electronic Library
The electronic library is the latest type of library in the history of the development of libraries in the world. It evolved as a result of the 11 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
advert of new technologies- information and communication technology (ICT). The electronic library is also known as the eLibrary, virtual library, digital library, library without walls, library of the future, etc. The electronic library (eLibrary) is a library where information resources are made available and accessible in electronic format and the services of the library are also accessible electronically “frequently over the internet” (Rosenberg in Okiyi (2014).
A virtual library is that library which provides access to databases, electronic journals, alerting services, electronic references and quality vetted e-resources. Although virtual library, electronic library, digital library, online library, etc. has been used synonymously, there still exist some differences between them. According to Ezra (2009) an electronic library consists of electronic materials and services such as video tapes and CD-ROM, while digital library consists of digital services and materials that are stored, processed and transferred through digital (binary) devices and networks. On the other hand, the virtual library consists of both digital and electronic libraries existing virtually. While a digital library can exist without a virtual library the latter cannot exist without the former despite the fact that the terms electronic, digital and virtual are used interchangeably.
A digital library is a collection of information of resources that are in an electronic format. The resources are basically the resources found in a traditional library but the difference is that the resources are either originally digital or digitised from their original print version. The contents of these resources may be stored locally in form of CD- ROM or DVD and can be accessed remotely using a computer.
1.5.8 Hybrid Library
A hybrid library is a combination of traditional library and a digital library in a particular library set up. In other words, the library has both print and electronic resources side by side. This type of library also maintains a conventional card or books catalogue with a digital catalogue in form of Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC). 12 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
In a hybrid library, the shelves are properly maintained to facilitate easy access to the information resources and there are computer workstations where e-resources can be searched remotely or locally.
Today, many libraries in Nigeria especially our academic libraries in tertiary institutions are currently operating hybrid libraries.
Functions of e-Libraries
1. The resources will never be out on loan.
2. To break the barrier of access to information.
3. To enhance quality of life by making digitally available e-books, journals and other resources available to the users anytime and anywhere through the use of information and communication technology based tools. 13 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
Achebe, N.E. (2008). “Concept of Library”. In: Library and Information Literacy for Higher Education. N. Achebe (Ed.). Enugu: The Nigeria Library Association, 1-15.
Ahiauzu, B. (2002). Use of Library: A Practical Approach. Nigeria: Springfield Publishers.
Aina, L.O. (2004). Library and Information Science: Text for Africa. Ibadan: Third World Information Services Ltd.
Arua G.N. (2015). Encounter with the Library: A Use of Library Guide for Schools, Colleges, Polytechnics and Universities (2nd ed.). Enugu: Chuka Educational Publishers.
Attama, R.O. & Ezema, J.I. (2015). Library and Information Services. A Practical Approach (2nd ed.). Nsukka: (Nigeria) E-Press (Nigeria).
Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science (1968). Vol. 1 New York: Marcel Dekker.
Ezennia, S.E. (1993). “High Quality Technical Education: A Case for Effective Library Services.” Technical Education Today 4(122), 46-48.
Ezra, S.G. (2007). “Implementing a National Virtual Library for Higher Institutions in Nigeria.” LIBRES: Lib & Info. Sc. Electronic Journal. 17(2), 1-15.
Goje, L.A. (1995). “The Library as an Indispensable Aid to Successful Research in Education”. Research Framework for Teacher Education in Nigeria, 120-136.
Okiy, R.B. (2014). History of Libraries. (2nd ed.). Benin: Ambik Press.
Okoro, O. (1999). Where there is no Librarian: Every One’s Guide to Use of Library. Owerri: Ihem Davis Press Ltd.
Onwubiko, E.C.N. & Uzoigwe, C.U. (2004). Library: The Home of Knowledge. Enugu: HRV Publishers. 14 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
Ambrose E. Smart
The library is organised in such a way that it can be properly managed. The resources are well organised for proper identification by users. For proper management of library resources, certain tools are used, called library classification schemes. Library classification is a system by which library resources are arranged according to subjects. Library classifications use notational system that represents the order of topics in the classification and allows items to be stored in that order. Library classification systems group related materials together, typically arranged in a hierarchical tree structure. The classification system developed and used at the Library of Congress since 1897, the Library of Congress Classification system (LC) divides the field of knowledge into 20large classes with an additional class on general works. This notation allows more combinations and greater specificity without long call numbers.
2.1 Classification of Materials
Classification is the putting together of like things or arranging of things according to common characteristic for easy retrieval of library resources.
There are different types of classification schemes used by libraries. These include:
► Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC)
► Library of Congress Classification (LCC)
► Colon Classification (CC)
► Universal Decimal Classification (UDC)
► Moy‟s Classification Scheme. 15 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
2.2 Library of Congress Classification (LCC)
The National Open University of Nigeria uses Library of Congress classification scheme for the organisation of their educational resources. Most academic libraries in Nigeria adopt Library of Congress classification scheme. This scheme was developed by the Library of Congress of the United States of America for the classification of information resources in that library. All academic libraries mainly in Nigeria adopt the scheme for their library.
The main classes of library of congress classification scheme are:
A General Works
B Philosophy, Religion
D History and Topography
E United States (history)
F United States (local)
G Geography, Anthropology
H Social Sciences
J Political Science
N Fine Arts
P Language and Literature
U Military Science
V Naval Science
Z Bibliography and library science.
2.3 Purpose of Classification Scheme in the Library
► It facilitates the grouping and maintenance of the library collection in a logical order. 16 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
► It helps to divide all knowledge into subjects.
► It makes accessibility/location of library books easy.
Shelf guides/shelve list: A shelf guide gives personal assistance to library users in order to easily locate a particular subject area of the wealth of library resources. It serves as an access point to all books/journals in the library. It guides the user to a particular subject area out of all the resources in the library.
Shelving: This is the arrangement of books on shelve(s) according to their class marks. Shelving helps to ensure that books are arranged under their specific subjects.
Catalogue: The library catalogue is a systematic and complete record of all library resources. It is a listing of books, maps and other information items in a specific library. The manual catalogue is a card that usually carries every information needed on a particular book in the library. According to Edoka (2000), “The catalogue is a communication device arranged in some definite order to enable the library user determine what a library has. According to him library catalogue is the index or key to the stock of that particular library.”
2.4 Call Number
The call number is both on the spine of the resource and on the record that represents this book in the OPAC (On-line Public Access Catalog),which is the electronic version of the catalog cards; it can be accessed by the use of computers in a computerised library system. Library of Congress notation is alphanumeric. In other words, it is a combination of alphabet(s) and number(s). The alphabets represent the broad subject area of the book. The first number line indicates a more specific or narrower subject area while the letter and number on the third line represent the author‟s cutter number (a code for the author‟s last name). The shelves are arranged alphabetically from A-Z (left to right). 17 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
2.5 Accessibility of Materials
• The arrangement of materials on the shelves is alphabetical by their classification mark which is from A to Z.
• Materials are labeled with their classification number on their spines.
• The letters and the number codes which are assigned to each book are known as call number.
2.6 Personnel Structure in the Library
The personnel structure in the university library follows this structure hierarchically. Thus;
► University librarian
► Deputy university librarian
► Principal librarian
► Senior librarian
► Librarian I
► Librarian II
► Assistant librarian
► Chief library officer
► Principal library officer
► Senior library officer
► Higher library officer
► Library officer
► Chief library assistant
► Senior library assistant
► Library assistant
► Head library assistant
► Library attendants.
2.7 Sections in the Library
The library is organised into different sections in National Open University of Nigeria. The various sections include: 18 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
1. The university librarian‟s office
2. Acquisition section
3. Cataloguing section
4. Readers‟ services section
5. Reference section
6. Serials section
7. E-library section.
2.7.1 The University Librarian’s Office
The university librarian is a principal officer of the university. He/she is usually in charge of the management of the library at the headquarters including all study centre libraries. The university librarian is responsible for the management functions such as planning, organising, staffing, budget preparation and defense, controlling and supervision, measurement and evaluation of activities, operational procedures and services, and reporting, among others.
2.7.2 Acquisition Section
Under this sections, are the Collection Development Unit, the Bibliographic Checking Unit, the Ordering, Receiving and Invoice Processing Unit and the Gift and Exchange Unit. The section handles all the activities relating to library acquisitions. The acquisition section is in charge of library stock development. It seeks and enjoys the cooperation of academic staff as well as students in its crucial task of stock building. Recommended titles for acquisition are usually forwarded to the acquisition librarian with approval from the university librarian.
2.7.3 Cataloguing Section
The cataloguing section takes care of getting the materials ready for use in the library by processing, cataloguing and classifying the material. This section is responsible for the processing of library materials. It is sometime referred to as the technical unit. In NOUN this unit is at the headquarters, the section processes books and sends to all study centres. 19 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
2.7.4 Readers’ Services Section
This section consists of the circulation unit, reference service unit, the serial units and reserved unit. The section is in charge of circulation of library materials. It is the image maker of the library. It oversees the general reading area as well as the open access collection. This unit deals directly with the library patrons. Registration of library clienteles, charging and discharging of books and other materials are carried out in this unit. Staff in this unit includes the circulation librarian and library assistants, library attendants and the security/porters. The section takes charge of the public services of the library.
There is a unit under the readers‟ services section known as the reserved unit. Books placed in the reserved unit are books that are not in multiple copies but are always requested for by many library users. Books placed in this unit are therefore consulted on hourly basis so as to be able to go round all the users. Books here cannot be borrowed like the ones in the open shelves.
2.7.5 Reference Section
The reference section provides reference services to staff, students and researchers. The reference section is headed by a reference librarian whose duty is to assist readers in getting information from the library resources for study, research and teaching. This section renders the following services:
• Provides answers to specific enquiries.
• Instructs readers on the use of the library and the catalogues, abstracts, indexes and local and foreign university calendars.
• Guides users in locating materials.
• Conducts an extensive literature search for library users with research topics and proposals.
• Provides inter-library services by issuing letters of introduction to registered members of the library to use other libraries when necessary. 20 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
2.7.6 Serials Section
The serials section contains current and back issues of foreign and local journals, magazines, newspapers, special collections such as government publications, inaugural lecture series, rare books and other significant collections.
2.7.7 E-Library Section
The electronic library is responsible for the development, organisation and handling of the library electronic services. It consists of the electronic and audio-visual resources unit, digitisation unit and networking unit. Users have access to a wide variety of electronic resources (online repositories, online databases, e-journal sites, etc.) with the e-library; library users have great advantage of doing research online with immediate access to information from huge databases in various fields. 21 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
Edoka, B.E. (2000). Introduction to Library Science. Onitsha: Palma Publishing and Links Company Limited.
Evarest, C. M. (2004). Technology for Information Management and Service: Modern Libraries and Information Centres in Developing Countries. Ibadan: Evi-coleman Publications.
Nwako, K.I.N. (2000). Fundamentals of Library Practice: A Manual on Library Routines. Ibadan: Stirling-Horden Publishers. 22 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
Services, Rules and Regulations in NOUN Library
Shamwil Salisu Bala
The services of the National Open University of Nigeria library are designed and tailored to meet the information needs of the university community. The services of the library can be broadly categorised into two namely: Technical Services and Readers‟ Services.
The technical services are those behind the scene activities that ensure the effective running and utilisation of library resources. Technical services provide the backbone upon which reader services are run. Technical services include cataloguing, classification, accessioning, shelving (and shelf reading) and collection development among others. Technical services are performed by professional librarians.
Readers‟ services on the other hand are those library services that are enjoyed by the library users; they include reference services, circulation, current awareness, selective dissemination of information among others. These services are accessible to library users as soon as they step into the library.
3.1 Print Resources Available in NOUN Library
Print resources are hard copies available in the library and are in designated sections:
iii. Course materials
iv. Reference materials
vii. Past Questions
viii. NOUN official publications. 23 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
3.2 Borrowing and Returning
How to borrow a book:
a. Identify the book you need from the shelves after consulting the OPAC (online public access catalogues) or database.
b. Ensure that the material is in good condition before taking it to the circulation desk.
c. Show your library identity card or your student‟s identity card to the library assistant on duty.
d. The library assistant in charge will process the book.
e. Check the date due slip and ensure that it is stamped and the date due is accurate.
f. Do not allow others to use your ID card.
The book is now in your care, safety of such books on loan to you is paramount. Avoid mutilation and return the books in good condition.
3.3 Number of Items Permitted for Loan
No student may have more than two library items, whether of the same or separate works in his possession at a time.
A staff is allowed to borrow maximum of four items, with same condition as student above.
3.4 Duration of Loan
The duration of loan for student is one week while that of staff is four weeks. The loan period can be extended just once on request. 24 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
3.5 Regulations for Borrowing of Library Materials
1. Books may be borrowed for home reading by staff and students. A borrower is personally responsible for materials that are checked on his tickets.
2. The centre librarian may determine at his/her discretion which books are available for lending from time to time. In general, most materials are available for loan. The exceptions are: books marked “Reference only”, materials on display “as current acquisitions” and periodicals.
3.5.1 Undergraduate Students
1. Students may borrow up to two books for two weeks and may request for an extension for another two weeks
2. Students with overdue books pay a fine of N50 per day/book, or if a book has been recalled to the library, a fine of N100 per book per day from the third day after the recall notice was dispatched.
3.5.2 Postgraduate Students
1. Postgraduate students may borrow up to two books for four weeks.
2. Postgraduate students with overdue books pay fine of N50 per day/book or if a book has been recalled by the library, a fine of N100 per book/day from the third day after the recall notice was dispatched.
3.5.3 Academic and Senior Staff
1. Academic and senior staff may borrow up to four books at a time
2. Academic and senior staff with overdue books pay a fine of N50 per book per day, if a book is recalled, he/she pays N100 from the third day after the recall notice was dispatched. 25 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
3.6 Condition of Loan
There are rules that the borrower has to adhere to, for the safety of library materials. Borrowers are advised to strictly adhere to the following instructions:
1. The consent of the librarian should be sought if any user wants to borrow books from another study centre library other than his original study centre.
2. They are subject to recall at any time.
3. The borrower is responsible for damage or loss.
4. Books on loan must be returned immediately on demand from the library.
5. Books borrowed are subject to scrutiny at the security points at the entrance to the library, or on request by any member of library staff.
6. Books kept beyond the due date attract a fine.
7. A book mutilated by a borrower on return attracts severe disciplinary action.
8. The borrower should return all library books before leaving for annual leave, vacation, sabbatical, training leave and at the end of his/her career or appointment with the university.
9. Fines will be charged for overdue books at the rate specified for the different categories of the library patrons.
10. After books have become one month overdue: the books will be regarded as missing and the cost of the replacement plus a processing fee will be charged to the borrower. But the book will still be regarded as library property if found.
11. Persistently non-cooperative borrowers will be reported as a matter to the dean of his/her faculty and library committee for further action. They may be debarred from borrowing library material until their bills are cleared.
12. Missing books must be reported immediately to the circulation librarian who will search for them, and if not still found will determine the current price of such books for replacement.
13. Books may be renewed only once provided that they are not needed by any other reader, or for the reserved book room, or recalled by the library. 26 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
14. Anyone may request an item already on loan to be reserved for him, on return of the material to the library.
15. Books on loan to any reader may be recalled by the library before expiration of the loan. Any of such books must be returned to the library at once, failing which the borrower will incurs a fine after three days of recalling the books.
3.7 Return of Borrowed Books
When books borrowed are returned, readers must ensure that the library staff physically receives and examines the books to make sure they are returned in good condition. Books borrowed should however be returned on or before the date due.
3.8 Overdue Notices
A notice of due date is sent a week after the date due. After this a final notice is sent two weeks after the date due. A fine is paid after the book is returned.
3.9 Care for Library Materials
Library materials in the possession of a borrower should be properly handled and returned in good condition on their due date. Lost or mutilated books are duly paid for. Defaulting borrowers face such consequences like withdrawal of library identity cards and all privileges given to such a user.
Treatment of Library Material
1. Damage to library property including books, furniture, or loss of materials should be reported to the head of readers‟ services at once. The cost of repair or replacement, as estimated by, and at the discretion of the University Librarian may be charged to the person responsible. Library books which have been reported missing and later replaced at the expense of the responsible borrower, but which are subsequently recovered, 27 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
nevertheless remain library property and should be returned to the library.
2. Library users should refrain particularly from marking, tearing or damaging in anyway, books, documents and periodicals belonging to the library. Any user who damages or steals library materials would be severely dealt with by the authority.
3.10 Library Regulations
To maintain law and order in the library, and also to ensure silence and safety of library materials, the following regulations are to be observed:
• Switch off your phones in and around the library.
• Avoid group discussion in and around the library.
• Any form of noise or distraction should be avoided.
• Food items are not allowed in the library.
• No smoking in and around the library.
• Users property like bags, cases, umbrellas, etc. should be kept in the place provided for them. Valuables should however be removed from them, as the library will not accept any responsibility for their loss.
• Downloading and printing of course material(s) is disallowed in the library, however users may patronise the business centre within the library premises.
• Readers are not permitted to use any form of external storage device on the library‟s systems.
• Library materials consulted should be left on the reading tables or returned to the circulation desk for proper shelving. Users should not attempt to reshelf such materials.
• In case of default on the part of the user, the university librarian reserves the right to suspend or withdraw all library privileges from a user, and to also report such cases to the appropriate university authorities for further disciplinary action. 28 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
• Stealing, mutilation and otherwise of books would be treated as gross misconduct and the offenders dealt with appropriately.
• Noise making, eating or drinking is disallowed in and around the library. Offenders would be sent out of the library.
• Users should write their names on the register at the reception desk. This is to enable the library monitor users‟ patronage.
• Users are to produce their Identity card at the point of entry.
• The university librarian is empowered to suspend any library user who flagrantly infringes the library regulations from the use of any or all the library‟s services.
• Only reserved books should be used in the reserved book room.
• Readers should not attempt to reshelf the books and periodicals they consult within the library. Materials consulted should be left on the tables or on the trolleys provided. Reserved books should be returned to the library assistants at the counter in the reserved book room after use.
University library patrons are encouraged to interact with the readers‟ services librarian as well as the subject specialist to maximise the use of library resources for teaching, research and community service. 29 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
Association of College Research and Libraries (1998). Library Services to Distance Learning Students. Available: http://www.acrl.com/dlc-lib
Gerolimos, Michalis & Konsta Rania (2011). “Services for academic libraries in the New era.” D-Lib Magazine Vol. 17 doi:10.1045/july2011-gerolimos
Igwe, Ukoha (2009). Libraries without Walls and Open and Distance Learning in Africa: the Nigerian Experience. Available: https://wikieducator.org/images/9/95/PID_399.pdf
National Open University of Nigeria Library (2013). Manual in Progress. Lagos: NOUN Learning Resources Centre.
Salisu, Shamwil Bala (2014). “Planning for Effective Library and Information Services in Open and Distance Learning (ODL) Institutions.” Benue Journal of Library, Management and Information Science Vol.4 No.1 30 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
E-Resources and Services in Distance Learning Environment Olaronke Fagbola and Oluwaseun Babarotimi
Libraries are vital components of academic institutions. As a result of their services to all the segments of the populace, libraries are unique and strategic in the society. Libraries provide access, organise and help users find the information they need (Igwe and Onah, 2013). Libraries form an integral part of education and services as means through which individuals, organisations and societies provide large number of people an unhindered access to substantial information and or level of knowledge (Fagbola, 2015). Information provision is crucial to knowledge, the bedrock of transformation and development in varying aspects of life. Information is indispensable. It is the only strategic resource that contributes to the development of man (Uzuegbu and Uzuegbu, 2013).
Learning in the 21st century is significantly different from learning in the preceding centuries. Learning in the 21st century is learner-centred, a lifelong process. With the opportunities brought by distance learning, access to higher education is provided with no boundaries of space and time. Distance education (process by which an individual or institution packages information in such a way that an individual or group of individuals learn at a distance) allows for a greater diversity of students to have access to especially university education but also creates a number of variables/scenario that can make deploying library services a big challenge (Hundu, Tuamsen and Dabis, 2013). Distance education usually employs all available media, methods and techniques to enable learners‟ access education/information at a distance.
The advent of the Internet and use of diverse social networking tools (WhatsApp, Flickr, Instant messaging, Twitter, Web 2.0) through Information Communication and Technologies (ICTs) have revolutionised the provision of information services to library patrons and has a major impact on how people find and access information. 31 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
The rising popularity of e-books, e-journals and e-resources in particular has helped in transforming the reading habits of library patrons in our universities. This development to a very large extent has altered, redefined and transformed the nature of libraries and information services available on offer in libraries, especially academic libraries today. In this changing landscape, academic libraries are trying to adjust their services to these new realities while still serving the needs of patrons who rely on more traditional resources. Before discussing the various types of services, it is imperative to first discuss available electronic resources. 32 National Open University of Nigeria: Library Orientation Manual
4.1 Available Electronic Resources in NOUN Library
Electronic resources available in NOUN virtual library include but are not limited to the following: S/N E-RESOURCES SUBJECT AREA COVERED LINK
AGORA(ACCESS TO GLOBAL ONLINE RESEARCH AGRICULTURE)
• All subject areas covered
• Social Sciences
• Environmental science
• Health education
• Biological Science
National Virtual Library
• Electronic books, journals, films, videos and maps in various fields to facilitate teaching, research and learning.
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