CSS381 Past Questions and Answers - Domestic Violence
CSS381 Past Questions and Answers - Domestic Violence
CSS381 PART 1
1. Define Violence? Explain the term Violence? Discuss violence?
Violence is defined by the World Health Organization as "the intentional use of physical
force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a
group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury,
death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation", This definition involves
intentionality with the committing of the act itself, irrespective of the outcome it
produces. However, generally, anything that is excited in an injurious or damaging way
may be described as violent even if not meant to be violence (by a person and against a
person. Violence matters wreck and shorten lives, causes pain and suffering, and is often part of rapid
social change. The field of violence encompasses war, terrorism, securitization, ethnic ‘cleansing’,
domestic violence, violent crime and hate crime. It has increasingly become a matter for public debate
and intervention by states and other actors.
2. Discuss the exclusive right of government to the use of violence
The essence of a state is to regulate the human conduct for the purpose of maintaining law and order
and to check the excesses of man especially as it concerns the issues of violence and violent crimes. It is
the responsibilities of government to make laws and ensure strict compliance of the people to the laws
of the land. To ensure strict compliance of the people, the government puts in place law enforcement
mechanisms (Police, army, etc) that enforces strict compliance of the people through the use of
violence. Therefore, it is only government that has the right to the use of violence in maintaining law
and order in a state. The government has the power to apply some considerable amount of violence
through the use of the police and military.
3. What is domestic violence? Explain the concept of Domestic Violence?
Domestic violence is a pattern of abusive and assaultive behaviors which include physical, sexual, verbal,
and psychological attacks and economic coercion that adults or adolescents use against their intimate
partner. It is also the inflicting of physical injury by one family or household member on another, a
repeated pattern of such behavior which could manifest itself in the form of an aggressive behavior. It
can also be regarded as unruly behavior, whereby members of the same family are at each other’s
throats. It is internal aggression perpetuated by a member or members of the internal living
arrangement that is aimed at a member or other members of the domestic union. The following are
types of domestic violence: physical and emotional child abuse; wife and husband battering; sexual
violence; psychological assault; molestation; coercion and gender violence.
4. List and explain six (6) types of domestic violence tactics perpetrated by abusers. Or explain the
tactics of DV?
I. Physical Tactics: this form of domestic violence Tactics involves Pushing, Restraining, pulling hair
, Slapping, Punching, Kicking, Suffocating, Strangling.
II. Sexual Tactics : this involves Raping or forcing the victim into unwanted sexual practices,
Forcing the victim to have an abortion or sabotaging birth control methods, Sexually assaulting
III. Verbal, Emotional, and Psychological Tactics – this involves Using humiliating language, insults,
name calling, Screaming, Harassing, Refusing to talk, Humiliating the victim privately or in the
presence of other people.
IV. Threats and Intimidation : this domestic violence tactics involves Breaking and smashing objects
or destroying the victim’s personal property, staring at the victim to force compliance,
Threatening acts of homicide, or injury, Forcing the victim to engage in illegal activity.
V. Economic Coercion: this tactics involves Preventing the victim from obtaining employment,
Withholding money, prohibiting access to family income, Making the victim ask or beg for
money, Forcing the victim to hand over any income, Stealing money, not providing an
allowance, Treating the victim like a servant.
5. Economic Coercion and Sexual Tactics are among Domestic Violence Tactics. Discuss?
Economic Coercion involves Preventing the victim from obtaining employment, Withholding
money, prohibiting access to family income, Making the victim ask or beg for money, Forcing
the victim to hand over any income, Stealing money, not providing an allowance, Treating the
victim like a servant.
Sexual Tactics involves Raping or forcing the victim into unwanted sexual practices, Forcing the
victim to have an abortion or sabotaging birth control methods, Sexually assaulting the children.
6. What are the causes of domestic violence? or Briefly explain 5 causes of Domestic violence.
II. Substance abuse
IV. cultural factors
VI. Stress, and depression, perpetrator's environment.
VII. Family structure.
VIII. Social learning.
7. Discuss the types of intimate partner violence? Identify and explain 3 types of intimate
I. Common couple violence (CCV) : this kind of intimate partner violence arises in a single
argument where one or both partners physically lash out at the other.
II. Intimate terrorism (IT): this involves emotional and psychological abuse. Intimate terrorism is
one element in a general pattern of control by one partner over the other it is likely to involve
III. Violent resistance (VR): is sometimes thought of as "self-defense", is violence perpetrated by
victims against their abusive partners.
IV. Mutual violent control (MVC) : is rare type of intimate partner violence, which occurs when
both partners act in a violent manner, battling for control.
8. Identify and discuss the three basic phases of abuse.
I. Tension Building Phase: this phase is characterized by poor communication, tension, fear of
causing outbursts. During this stage the victims try to calm the abuser down, to avoid any major
violent confrontations. During this stage the abuser attempts to dominate his/her partner
(victim), with the use of domestic violence.
II. Violent Episode : this phase is Characterized by outbursts of violent, abusive incidents. During
this stage the abuser attempts to dominate his/her partner (victim), with the use of domestic
III. Honeymoon Phase: this phase is characterized by affection, apology, and apparent end of
violence. During this stage the abuser feels overwhelming feelings of remorse and sadness.
Some abusers walk away from the situation, while others shower their victims with love and
9. Explain who a victim of DV can be.
Credit: David Marshall
Use Past Questions to see how examiner asked questions in the past
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