NOUN EExams: ENT224 - Business Ethics, Past Questions

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Adele
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NOUN EExams: ENT224 - Business Ethics, Past Questions

Postby Adele » Tue Jul 10, 2018 7:46 am

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Q1 Ethical standards would typically cover matters such as contribution or payment to
officials or political parties.
Q2 A/An __social contracts theory, as a way for managers to take decisions in
an ethical context, has been developed.
Q3 A _corporation is a company that maintains manufacturing, marketing,
service or administrative operations in many different host countries.
Q4 The fundamental problem with ethical relativism, allege, is that it holds that
the moral standards of a society are only criteria by which actions in that society can be judged.
Q5 The stakeholder of the firm is used as a basis to analyse those groups to
whom the firm should be responsible.
Q6 Ethical standards would typically cover matters such as fair and human
resource practices.
Q7 The social contract theory has a long tradition in ethical and political
Q8 A stakeholder is any group or individual who can affect or is affected by the
of the organisation’s objectives.
Q9 Many of the most pressing issues in business ethics today are related to the phenomenon of
Q10 __reasoning refers to the reasoning process by which human behaviours,
institutions, or policies are judged to be in accordance with or in violation of moral standards.
Q11 A corporate organisation “exists” only if there are certain human who are
in certain circumstances and relationships.
Q12 Ethical is the theory that, because different societies have different ethical
beliefs, etc.
Q13 Kohlberg has been criticised for claiming that the higher stages are morally preferable to the
_stages.
Q14 Globalisation has resulted in a phenomenon that is familiar to who travels
outside their country.
Q15 An organisation may employ four broad legitimating strategies when faced with different
threats.
Q16 A corporate organisation “acts” only if certain human __in the
organisation performed certain actions in certain circumstances etc.

Q17 A primary group includes and investors, employees, customers and
suppliers, together with what is defined as the public stakeholder group.
Q18 __were carrying goods over the trading routes of Europe, Asia, Africa and
the Americas almost since civilisation dawned on these places.
Q19 consists of all those methods, processes, and tools that humans invent to
manipulate their environment.
Q20 Often, ethical __do not provide specific guidance on particular issues, and
may conflict with the priorities of the commercial world.
Q21 Companies that strongly enforce company codes of conduct and provide
__training help employees recognise and reason through ethical problems.
Q22 issues in business ethics are ethical questions raised about the economic,
political, legal, and other social systems or institutions within which businesses operate.
Q23 _and sociologists, for example, may study the moral standards that a
particular village or culture holds.
Q24 are enacted to actually take care of unethical behaviours or behaviours that
are below moral/ethical standards.
Q25 Corporate ethical issues can be solved only through _or company solutions.
Q26 Moral standards deal with matters that we think can seriously injure or seriously benefit
Q27 A code of conduct is a written statement, setting forth the that guide an
organisation’s decision.
Q28 Ethics is the discipline that examines one’s moral standards or the
standards of a society.
Q29 Business organisations are the primary institutions through which people
in modern societies carry on the task of producing and distributing goods and services.
Q30 Some business executives put their own personal interests ahead of that of
and shareholders thereby causing harm to them.
Q31 Similarly, companies with strong ethical practices set a good example for to
follow.
Q32 Ethical conduct requires that companies refrain from issuing false or misleading
Q33 Boyd defined ethics as concerned with the development of __standards by
which actions, situations and behaviour can be judged.
Q34 A __study is one that does not try to reach any conclusion about what

things are truly good, bad or right or wrong.
Q35 Individual issues in business ethics are ethical questions raisedabout a particular individual or
particular individuals within a company and their and decisions.
Q36 Moral standards are not established or changed by the decisions of particular
bodies.
Q37 A study is an investigation that attempts to reach normative conclusions,
that is, conclusions about what things are good or bad or about what actions are right or wrong.
Q38 Culture is the way of life of people and transmitted from one to another.
Q39 Moral standards should be preferred to other _including self- interest.
Q40 The foundation of an ethical business climate is ethical awareness and clear standards of
Q41 Before the advent of business ethics, business transactions have largely been conducted on the
principle of _, etc.
Q42 Legal and ethical actions are both acceptable within the legal framework and societal
Q43 Laws and regulations are promulgated especially in business to right the wrongs and unwholesome
practices by
Q44 Laws and legal standards are established by the of a legislature or the
decisions of voters.
Q45 Graduates are more likely to be attracted to companies which treat their
fairly and give customers a fair deal.
Q46 Ethics mean accepted standards in terms of your personal and social
Q47 and unethical actions are when law supports what you are doing, but it is
unethical because the society frowns at it.
Q48 An employee or manager is held responsible for his/her decisions, actions or
Q49 Moral standards are not established or changed by the decisions of particular
bodies.
Q50 Business decisions not based on facts or a clear understanding of the consequences could harm
employees, customers, the company, and other
Q51 The is the most important source of ensuring that consumers receive a fair
deal from retailers and manufacturers.
Q52 Moral standards, however, are not established by any authority, nor does their

rest on voting procedures.
Q53 Culture is the way of life of people and transmitted from one to another.
Q54 values can usually be expressed as statements describing objects or features
of objects that have worth.
Q55 Ethical business practice is a means of forestalling legislation and
Q56 is defined as a form of the art of applied ethics that examines ethical
principles and moral or ethical problems that can arise in a business environment.
Q57 are, arguably, more likely to buy from a company which can be seen to be
acting ethically.
Q58 Moral norms can usually be expressed as general rules or
Q59 and illegal actions would imply making offerings that have been outlawed
and are against societal norms.
Q60 Ethics refer to the and standards of moral behaviour that are accepted by
society as right versus wrong.



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Adele
Posts: 522
Joined: Mon Nov 06, 2017 3:24 pm
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Re: NOUN EExams: ENT224 - Business Ethics, Past Questions

Postby Adele » Tue Jul 10, 2018 7:53 am

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Q61 ………….. justice, the second category, refers to the just imposition of punishments and penalties on those who do wrong.

Retributives


Q62 Distributive justice, the first and basic category, is concerned with the fair …………. of society's benefits and burdens.

Distri bution

Q63 Issues involving questions of justice and fairness are usually divided into …………… categories.

Three

Q64 …………. rights, for example, might be legitimately redistributed for the sake of justice.

Propert y

Q65 …………….. of justice do not generally override the moral rights of individuals.

Standards

Q66 ……………. of justice are generally taken to be more important than utilitarian considerations.

Stand ards

Q67 Disputes among ……………. in business are often interlaced with references to justice or fairness.

Individua ls

Q68 Defenders of a Kantian approach to ethics, of course, would reply that it is the …………., not Kant, who is mistaken.

Critics

Q69 A ……… group of criticisms that have been made of Kant's theory is that there are counter examples that which show that the theory sometimes goes wrong.

Third

Q70 Despite the attractiveness of Kant's theory, critics have argued that, like utilitarianism, it has its limitations and …………………...

Inadequacie s

Q71 A large number of authors have held that the ………. imperative explains why people have moral rights.

Categ orical

Q72 Contractual rights and duties depend on a publicly accepted system of rules that define the …………. that give rise to those rights and duties.

Trans actions

Q73 Contractual rights and duties are distinguished, first, by the fact that they attach to specific individuals and the correlative duties are imposed only on other …………… individuals.

Specific

Q74 Contractual rights and duties are the …….. rights and correlative duties that arise when one person enters an agreement with another person.

Limited

Q75 Positive rights were not emphasised until the ………… century.

20th

Q76 Moral ……… provide a basis for justifying one's actions and for invoking the protection or aid of others.

Rights

Q77 Moral rights provide individuals with ………. and equality in the free pursuit of their interests.

Auton omy

Q78 Entitlements can also derive from a system of ……….. Standards independently of any particular legal system.

Moral

Q79 Legal rights are limited, of course, to the particular jurisdiction within which the legal system is in

Force

Q80 A person has a right when that person is entitled to act in a ……. way or is entitled to have others act in a certain way toward him or her.

Certai n

Q81 In general, a right is an individual’s entitlement to …………...

Somethin g


Q82 The concept of a right plays a crucial role in many of the moral arguments and moral claims …….. in business discussions.

Invoked

Q83 An action is right from an ethical point of view if and only if the would be required by those …….. rules that are correct.

Moral

Q84 Utilitarianism can also go wrong, according to the …….., when it is applied to situations that involve social justice.

Critics

Q85 The major difficulty with utilitarianism, according to some critics, is that it is unable to deal with …. kinds of moral issues: that relating to rights and those relating to justice.

Two

Q86 A standard objection against using ………… values to measure all costs and benefits is that some goods, in particular health and life, cannot be priced.

Monet ary

Q87 Intrinsic goods, however, are things that are desirable …………. any other benefits they may produce.

Independen t

Q88 The utilitarian can also point to several ………… criteria that can be used to determine the relative values that should be given to various categories of goods.

Common- sense

Q89 One major set of problems with utilitarianism is centered on the difficulties encountered when trying to measure ………………..

Utility

Q90 Utilitarianism is also the basis of the ………… of economic cost benefit analysis.

Techniques


Q91 Utilitarian views have also been highly influential in ……………….

Economics

Q92 The utilitarian can say that lying is generally wrong because of the costly effects of ……….. on our human welfare.

Lying

Q93 Utilitarianism also seems to fit in rather neatly with the intuitive criteria that people employ when discussing ……… conduct.

Moral

Q94 As far as many …….. are concerned, organisational/business image and reputation are sometimes highly questionable.

People


Q95 An employee has no obligation to obey an order to do what is ……………...

Immoral

Q96 It is clearly mistaken, however, to think that an employee who freely and knowingly does something ……… is absolved of all responsibility when "following orders."

Wron g


Q97 Corporations usually have a hierarchical structure of ……….. in which orders and directives pass from those higher in the structure, etc.

Author ity


Q98 In a corporation, employees often act on the basis of their superiors'……………

Powers


Q99 Within the modern corporation, …………….for a corporate act is often distributed among a number of cooperating parties.

Responsibility

Q100 The third requirement for moral responsibility is that the person must act of his own
………………… will.

Free

Q101 Occasionally people object to the view that ethical …………………. should be applied to the behaviour of people in business organisations.

Standards

Q102 Tragically, the obligation to obey the law can create terrible conflicts, when the law requires something that the ………………….. believes is immoral.

Businessperson

Q103 All businesses require a ………………………. society in which to carry on business dealings.


Stable

Q104 Some laws have nothing to do with ……………………….. because they do not involve serious matters.

Morality

Q105 ………………………. reasoning, however, is sometimes directed at a different kind of judgment: determining whether a person is morally responsible for an injury or for a wrong.

Moral

Q106 An employer would want to be served in whatever ways will advance his or her

Self-interests
Q107 A person, for example, who injures someone by accident, is …………………. from any blame.

Excused

Q108 A person is not morally …………………. for example, if he causes an injury because he lacked the power, skill, opportunity, or resources to prevent his actions from resulting in the injury.

Respon sible

Q109 The laws of …………………….. today require that businesses discriminate against women and Jews in ways that most people would say are clearly immoral.

Saudi Arabia


Q110 In a …………………….., employees often act on the basis of their superiors' orders.

Corporation

Q111 It is true that some laws require …………………….. that is the same as the behaviour required by our moral standards.

Behavior

Q112 Within the modern corporation, responsibility for a corporate act is often distributed among a number of ……………………. parties.

Cooperating

Q113 A person act of his/her own free will when that person acts …………... or purposefully and his actions are not the result of some uncontrollable mental impulse or external force.

Deliberately

Q114 Pre-Civil War slavery laws, for example, required slave owners to treat slaves like property, and the laws of Nazi Germany required anti-Semitic ………………………………

Behavior

Q115 ………………………………. are not always morally responsible for the injuries they inflict on others.

People

Q116 It is ………………….. however, to see laws and ethics as identical.

Wrongs

Q117 The stability of any society requires that its members adhere to some minimal standards of

Ethics

Q118 Most ……………………. agree that all citizens have a moral obligation to obey the law, so long as the law does not require clearly unjust beaviour.

Ethicists

Q119 Business is a cooperative activity whose very existence requires ethical

Behavio urs


Q120 The main reason that moral standards are often not made ………………. is that they are generally presumed to be obvious.

Explicit





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