NOUN E-Exam Past Questions: PCR274 - Introduction to Conflict Transformation

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LadyB
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NOUN E-Exam Past Questions: PCR274 - Introduction to Conflict Transformation

Postby LadyB » Sun Jul 29, 2018 2:31 pm

NOUN E-Exam Past Questions: PCR274 - Introduction to Conflict Transformation


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Resolution and
transformation of conflicts
either at the communal or
international levels would
guarantee
peace if the justice system
is respected and insulated
from undue inferences.
Positive eExam
FBQ
permits conflicts to
deteriorate rather than
giving room for
improvement.
Avoidance eExam
FBQ
Before intervening in any
conflict the
of the conflict both the
remote and immediate
must be lucidly analysed
and understood
Causes eExam
FBQ
Among theories that have
been provided on causation
of conflicts are the two
called additive theory and
_theory which describes a
situation where actors’
actions are delayed till the
situation gets unbearable
Cumulative eExam
FBQ
Analytical theories are
found mostly in
_and mathematical
sciences providing mostly
statements of facts upon
which other facts are
based.
Logic eExam
FBQ
Making the best out of any
conflict will depend on the
used in handling the
conflict
3 Styles eExam

FBQ
Faleti (2006) suggests that
there are generally four
types of conflict theories;
these are; analytic,
normative, scientific, and
Metaphysical eExam
FBQ
The second Nigerian
environmental conflict is
the international
environmental conflict
between Nigeria and
_over the Bakassi
Peninsula
Cameroon eExam
FBQ
In Nigeria there have been
two most outstanding cases
of environmental conflicts
the first in the Niger-Delta
conflict over
and environmental
resources
Natural eExam
FBQ
Larry Diamond sees the
overbearing dominance of
the post-colonial Nigerian
state with enormous
resources as a source of
class conflicts.
Economic eExam
FBQ
In the words of Marx, “the
history of hitherto existing
societies is the history of
_”.
Class struggle eExam
FBQ
According to Karl Marx,
the relationship with the
_by groups at the social
basis of each society
defines classes
Means of
production
eExam
FBQ
Since the establishment of
private property, society
has been divided into
hostile economic classes,
says Marx
Two eExam
FBQ
A group of people who
share a common and
peculiar culture is called Ethnic group eExam

FBQ
_is defined as a conflict
involving believers of two
different faiths for the
purpose of dominating the
other faith in order to
expand one faith at the
expense of the other.
A religious
conflict;
eExam
FBQ
Ethnic conflict is one of
the most destructive and
pervasive conflicts in
_especially since the end
of the cold war
Africa eExam
FBQ
For Galtung (1996),
conflict has two flip-sides:
‘dispute’- two persons or
actors, pursuing the same
scarce goal;
_described as one person
or actor seeking two
incompatible goals.
Dilemma eExam
FBQ _is among the group of
expected outcomes of
conflict
All of the above eExam
FBQ
On the technical level
conflict has been defined
as
among social entities
directed against one
another
Opposition eExam
FBQ
Conflict has been variously
defined by scholars though
its’ origin comes from the
Latin word confligere
which means
To strike
together
eExam
FBQ
The conflict costs in all
manifestations human,
social, political,
psychological, financial
material etc., must be
calculated by comparing
the post-conflict with the
environment
Pre-conflict eExam
FBQ
Integrate power relies on
and problem solving.
Persuasion eExam

FBQ
“There are also exchange
power and integrative
power. Exchange power.
relies on compromise and
_. Integrate power relies on
persuasion and problem
solving” (Fisher 2000:38).
Bargaining eExam
FBQ
Power relations or
equations are also a very
crucial influence in
conflict. There are two
types of power namely,
hard and
Soft eExam
FBQ
The context of conflict
occurrence must be given
due attention by the
conflict analyst who must
take cognisance of the
social, economic, political
and
_milieu of the conflict.
Ideological eExam
FBQ
Before intervening in any
conflict or deciding the
most suitable tools of
analysis, the analyst must
also be acquainted with the
_of the conflict
The history eExam
FBQ
Individuals and elites
could like to trigger a
conflict due to sincere
ideological struggle over
how to administer the state
or to have a secure control
of
Assets eExam
FBQ
Values include; ideas,
habits, customs and
_that define a particular
social community
Beliefs eExam
FBQ
Dialogue is a form of
conversation and relating
with people in a way that is
different from mediation,
negotiation and
Debate eExam
FBQ
is a conflict handling style
Confrontation eExam

FBQ
_is often adopted in
extreme situations where
the parties cannot move
forward without making
concessions on some of
their demands
Compromise eExam
FBQ
The objective of Joint
Problem Solving is to
arrive at a mutually
satisfying
_on the issues in conflict.
Agreement eExam
FBQ
is a conflict handling style
on the perception and
assessment of the
dominant party of the other
party in the conflict
situation.
Suppression eExam
FBQ
Avoidance permits
conflicts to deteriorate
rather than giving room for Improvement eExam
FBQ
Some features of
Avoidance style in conflict
response are denial of the
conflict, avoiding issues,
joking instead of dealing
with the conflict and
2 eExam
FBQ
In reference to postconflict
settings for
transformation, the United
Nations Commission on
Human Security proposed
two general security
strategies namely, postconflict
protection and
Empowerment eExam
FBQ
Compared with the
Westphalia concept of
security, one of the
features of human security
would be good governance
based on transparency and
Accountability eExam
FBQ
Freedom from fear is
narrower in concept
because it focuses more on
security threats against the
Individual eExam

FBQ
Schwarz, (2005) informs
that there are two popular
notions of human security
in international debates.
These are freedom from
fear and freedom from
Want eExam
FBQ
According to Enrich
Fromm, “intended
violence” aim strictly at
the violation of others;
are among the extreme
cases of intended violence.
All of the above eExam
FBQ
There are physical and
non-physical types of
violence; but “the only
violence which is
measurable and
indisputable is
_violence”. (Alain
Chesnais (1981:12).
Physical eExam
FBQ
For a proper understanding
of violence, intellectual
enquiries must transcend
the demonstration of
_violence during conflicts.
Physical eExam
FBQ
The main characteristic of
violent conflict is the
bestial demonstration of
Physical
violence
eExam
FBQ
In theory, gender-based
violence is violence
directed at individuals
because of their sex or/and
socially constructed
_roles.
Gender eExam
FBQ
31 Most psychologists and
sociologists maintain that
human violence arises in
response to
_rather than being borne
out of our genetic makeup.
Experiences eExam
FBQ
Some students of human
behaviour have concluded
that much of human misery
including penchant for war
itself derives in part from
the consequences of being
_as children.
Ill-treated eExam

FBQ
Another outstanding
reason for the unravelling
causes of human
inclination for violence,
aggression or war is the
narcissistic rage otherwise
known as
Self-infatuation eExam
FBQ
Sigmund Freud was the
creator of Psychoanalysis eExam
FBQ
Among the nine tracks that
compose Multi-Track are:
Government, Nongovernmental/
Professional,
Organised Private Sector,
Private Citizen, , Activism,
Faith Action, Funding,
Communication
and the Media
eExam
FBQ
The most source of power
for Multi-Track Diplomacy
is the ability to empower
people for conflict
Transformation eExam
FBQ
The phrase “Track Two”
was coined in 1982 by
_to conceptualise methods
of diplomacy outside the
formal government
arrangement.
Joseph
Montville
eExam
FBQ
Multi-Track Diplomacy
(MTD) is designed to
encompass the various
activities that contribute to
international
_and peace-building
Peace-making eExam
FBQ
Cardinal Richelieu was the
chief manipulator of the
early
century French King Louis
XIII.
17th eExam
FBQ
It is generally agreed that
the present day system of
diplomatic protocol was
founded by
the Chief Minister
Cardinal
Richelieu
eExam
FBQ
The success or otherwise
of a country’s diplomacy
depends largely on the
head of the
concerned
Head of
government
eExam

FBQ
The issue of when to start
peace building operations
also has produced two
different schools of
thought. These are
Gradualists’
and the
‘synergists
eExam
FBQ
Peace making and
peacekeeping occur
_and during armed
conflicts
Before eExam
FBQ
Conflict transformation
aims at transcending zero
sum (win-loss) phase to
arrive at a
(win-win) agreement.
Positive-sum eExam
FBQ
Conflict transformation is
the aggregate of all efforts
that concentrate on the
_-stages or processes of a
conflict, rather than simply
on its end point
Developmental eExam
FBQ
Conflict transformation
involves the transformation
of issues, actor, structures
and
Rules eExam
FBQ
Conflict transformation is
geared towards positive
peace and restorative Justice eExam
FBQ
The second approach to
conflict transformation
tries to freeze the conflict,
negate it, protect it,
through
_and direct violence
Structural eExam
FBQ
One of the two broad
approaches to conflict
transformation is nonviolent
conflict
transformation otherwise
known as
_.
The Gandhi
theory
eExam
FBQ
Conflict transformation
aims to transform the
conflict from violent
manifestation characterised
by armed conflict and war
to
_expression
Constructive
and peaceful
eExam

FBQ
The main purpose of
conflict transformation is
to put in place positive
peace that will be
congenial to the nonviolent
handling of
Conflict eExam
FBQ
Structural transformation
implies profound
_in the entire structure of
inter-actor relations in a
conflict setting or
formation.
Change eExam
FBQ
Decoupling empirically
means getting the
_or repressed empowered
to depend less on the
structure that is
exploitative.
Exploited eExam
FBQ
Struggle for overcoming
repression and/or
exploitation is concerned
about how the struggle is
_or implemented
Prosecuted eExam
FBQ
_implies selecting and
addressing an issue that is
central and reflective of the
conflict.
Confrontation eExam
FBQ
According to Galtung,
(1996)
_involves an actor who is
also the subject, conscious
of what he wants, why he
wants it
An actor
conflict
eExam
FBQ
Structural transformation
also entails the influencing
of structures officially to
prevent any
_outcome or feeling in the
post conflict phase.
Win – lose eExam
FBQ
It will not be incorrect to
state that one of the causes
of many violent conflicts is
_imbalance
Structural eExam
FBQ
Central to conflicts either
at the inter-personal or
community level is
_being
Human eExam

FBQ
The proponents of
transformational mediation
such as Bush and Folger
also argue that
transformation of society is
an indirect result of
Individual
transformation
eExam
FBQ
In conflict transformation
the first and foremost
important requirement is to
guide against
_of conflict in the nearest
future.
Re-occurrence. eExam
MCQ




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LadyB
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Joined: Sun Nov 05, 2017 7:32 pm
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Re: NOUN E-Exam Past Questions: PCR274 - Introduction to Conflict Transformation

Postby LadyB » Sun Jul 29, 2018 3:59 pm

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Q76 According to Cohen and others quoted in Ayoob (2001), state-making must include

The expansion and consolidation of the territorial and demographic domain under a politi cal authority,
The maintenance of order in the territory (policing)
The extraction of resources from the territory and ex istence of a population under the control of the state
***All of the above.

Q77 While many countries have smarted from being post–conflict communities to become major players in global affairs, the story has been different in

Africa

Q78 The first type of post–conflict communities are

Those rendered desolate by militaristic conflict han dling style of the state.

Q79 One of the following provides the guarantee for the implementation of peace deal

Settleme nt

Q80 Yes, cultural factors are strong causes of conflict amongst groups if they are partially and emotionally applied; but so also are factors related to

Politics
Econom y
Psycholog ical realities
***all of the above


Q81 What does the acronym UN stand for?

Unilateral Notio ns

Q82 The following Countries are currently considered as Conflict Zones with the exception of one which is

Germa ny

Q83 The physical environment refers to the four major sub-divisions of the earth with their enormous interlocking systems. This definition was given by

Egunjo bi

Q84 There are the following number of broad approaches to conflict transformation:

2

Q85 One of the following can be defined as the aggregate of all efforts that concentrate on the developmental stages or processes of a conflict, rather than simply on its end point.

Conflict transformat ion

Q86 Direct and terminal violence against oneself is called

Suicide

Q87 One of these scholars has defined diplomacy as the application of intelligence and tact to the conduct of official relations between governments of independent states

Satow

Q88 One of these continents has attracted more peace–keeping operations than any other continent because of the prevalence and epidemic nature of conflicts within her borders.

Africa

Q89 Social Status and Control of resources can be demonstrated as evidence of

Economic power

Q90 The evolution of a conflict enables the conflict analyst to know whether the conflict is

Intensifying
Stabilising
De-escalati ng
***All of the abo ve

Q91 The values of the parties in conflict must also be well understood by the

Conflict analyst/s

Q92 Parties in a conflict are pitched against each other or perceive each other on the basis of their differing

Values

Q93 In deep–rooted value based conflicts where negotiation is impossible, the following can be more useful:

Dialogue approach
Q94 Constructive confrontation is done by reframing conflicts in a more productive way in order to

Correct misunderstandin gs

Q95 In a situation where parties cannot move forward without making concessions on some of their demands, the following strategy is often adopted:

Compromise

Q96 This conflict resolution strategy is capable of facilitating interpersonal rather than inter-societal group interaction and understanding:

Analytical problem solving

Q97 Analytical problem solving illustration workshop was used between
sraelis and Pal estinians

Q98 Which conflict handling style was developed by Herbert Kelman and John Burton?

Analytical problem solving

Q99 This is also a form of joint problem solving approach:

Arbitration

Q100 One of the following can be done either through negotiation or a third party mediation

Joint Problem Solving





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LadyB
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Re: NOUN E-Exam Past Questions: PCR274 - Introduction to Conflict Transformation

Postby LadyB » Sun Jul 29, 2018 7:02 pm

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Q126 On the technical level conflict is defined as “opposition among social entities directed”


Against one another

Q127 At the inter-personal level, a transformation of the actors or parties has

Direct and positive effects on the c onflict.

Q128 One of the main factors to be transformed in any conflict is

Man or the actors.

Q129 One of the fundamentals features of conflict transformation that makes it different from conflict resolution and conflict management is

Structure transfor mation

Q130 Direct violence can be divided into two categories.

Verbal, Physical,

Q131 Freud attributed much of man’s morbid behaviours to the operation of the death instinct in contrast to

The life instinct (Pistis)

Q132 Sigmund Freud was the creator of psychoanalysis and in many ways the founder of

Modern psychiatr y

Q133 Among the challenges that could face Multi-Track Diplomacy are

Maintaining flexibility in the face of the unknown
Recognising healing as the key to transformation
Taking the holistic and positive view
***All of the above

Q134 Among the looming threats to humanity are

The globalisation of violence
The breakdown of systemic in tegrity
The depletion of natural resources
***All of the above

Q135 Multi-Track Diplomacy has come into

The 21st century as an established and read y to use pill to address global insecurity

Q136 The efforts of Track One and Track Two Diplomacy alone can no longer cope with contemporary challenges because

The rapid proliferation of arms and the potentially deva stating effects of wars inform the need for pragmatic innovation in the art and science of peace

Q137 The main thrust of Track Two diplomacy; as has been conceptualised in the 1980s, is that

Experience and expertise for addressing conflicts successfully are not a sole preserve of government personnel or procedures; but also skilled citizens

Q138 Track Two diplomacy activities have these objectives except one which is

To confront the opposing party in order to impose a win-loss situation

Q139 The following Track diplomacy refers to non-governmental, informal and unofficial contracts and activities between private citizen diplomats

Track Two Diplomacy

Q140 One of the following is defined as the application of intelligence and tact to the conduct of official relations between governments of independent states.

Diplomacy

Q141 Multi-Track Diplomacy (MTD) is a conceptual framework of

Nine track s

Q142 There exists theoretically and empirically mutually dependent and mutually reinforcing relationship between conflict transformation and

Peace-building

Q143 For conflict transformation to be well implemented, peace building

Cannot be overlooked

Q144 Conflict transformation and peace building occur

After a period of armed conflict

Q145 For conflict transformation to be well implemented, peace building cannot be

Neglecte d.

Q146 Boutros-Boutros Ghali (1992) defined Peace-building as action to identify and support structures which will tend to strengthen and solidify

Peace

Q147 The ABC Triangle tool analyses the factors related to

Attitude, behaviour and context of each of the parties in a c onflict

Q148 The Onion strategy is very useful in determining what different parties in a conflict are demanding and in

Clarifying their needs at the negotiation table

Q149 One of the following is not among the tools and techniques of conflict analysis mentioned in this course:

The Four Square Tree

Q150 Conflict analysis is

A practical system of examining and understandi ng the reality of the conflict from a variety of perspectives




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LadyB
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Re: NOUN E-Exam Past Questions: PCR274 - Introduction to Conflict Transformation

Postby LadyB » Sun Jul 29, 2018 7:03 pm

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Q101 Before deciding the most suitable tools of analysis of any conflict, the intervener has to unearth:

Likely hidden and unmentioned issues connected to the conflict.
Combination of factors within in and out the conflict setting
The theoretical analysis of the conflict whether it is cumulati ve, consecutive, or otherwise.
***All of the above

Q102 Joint Problem Solving is

A Conflict Handling Style

Q103 When, in a Third Party Decision making, the judiciary seems to protect the rights of the privileged few, the inclination to violent means of handling conflict becomes

Very high

Q104 Confrontation can take the form of

Military action, intimidation, blackmail and arrests.
Demonization and name-calling
Attack or destruction of the othe r party in conflict while the issues in conflict are left to simmer
***All of the above


Q105 In practice, the dominant party suppresses the other party with the sole aim of

Vanquishing the concerned party

Q106 The more a wronged or seemingly wronged party is ignored, or avoided, the more the probability of the party getting a

A win-lose conf lict outcome.

Q107 Avoidance permits conflicts to

Deteriorate rather than giv e room for improvement

Q108 The following is usually initiated by the stronger or more powerful party

Confrontation

Q109 The term post – conflict community in the context of this course refers to

A community that has been ravaged by a violent conflict.

Q110 Causes of conflict can come from a divergent value system in terms of

Ideology
Religion and insufficiency
General worldview
***All of the above

Q111 Practically, environmental conflict is defined by the struggle within and between states for the control, exploitation and manipulation of

Ecological resources

Q112 Environmental conflict arises often as a result of

Undue pressure,
Degradation, pol lution
Resource depletion, res ource exploitation
All of the above

Q113 In conventional terms, the physical environment is known in terms of the following except one which is

Climate

Q114 The hydrosphere is made up of

World oceans, lakes and rivers

Q115 The physiccal environment according to Egunjobi (2006) refers to the four major sub-divisions of the earth among which are:

The Bioliphere
The lithosphere
The hydrospher e and the atmosphere
b, and c

Q116 A study of conflict in Africa will not be complete without addressing

Religious confli ct.

Q117 Karl Marx’s principles is directly linked to

Evolution and possession of pri vate property

Q118 In the words of Marx, the history of hitherto existing societies is about

Class struggle

Q119 One of the cardinal principles of communism is the existence of

Class conflict or struggle

Q120 Ethnic conflicts could originate from all the following factors except one:
elements.

Cordial relation between the youth of two hostile countries

Q121 According to Williams (2006), there are

Over 5,000 ethnic minorities in the world.

Q122 According to Otite, “over 90% of the world’s independent states are ethnically

Plural and are in various degrees of stability at different stages of development

Q123 The word “ethnic” is derived from the Greek word “ethnos” meaning a group of people who

Share a common a nd peculiar culture

Q124 Conflict is:

Disputes and t ensions as well as manifest clashes between social forces
Struggle over values or claims to status, power, and scarce resources wh ere the winner would obtain the
desired values and eliminate rivals
Perceived incompatibility betw een two or more people or groups
***All of the above

Q125 Conflict can be explained as an adversarial relationship involving at least two individuals or collective actors over a range of issues such as

Resources
Power
Status and Values
***All of the above






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